Investigation of different attributes of Semiconductor Material and its impact on performances for nanoscale MOSFETs

S K Mohapatra

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Centre for Advanced Post Graduate Studies, Biju Patnaik University of Technology, Rourkela, Odisha, India.

The basis of any electronic gadget is a Semiconductor material. We are surrounded by semiconductors everywhere. A detailed study is required to explore further the semiconducting materials, Silicon (Si), Germanium (Ge), Gallium Arsenide (GaAs), Indium Gallium Arsenide (InGaAs) and Silicon-Germanium (Si-Ge).

The various attributes of these materials are listed in this table. Si is preferred over Ge whereas GaAs is preferred over Si. InGaAs has the highest electron mobility (helps in faster response) and low power (LP) and Si-Ge (strained semiconductor) is fast replacing GaAs.

Attributes*     Si(Group IV)    Ge(Group IV)    GaAs(III-V)     InGaAs(III-V)   Si-Ge
Thermal Rise    1412 oC 937 oC  1240 oC 1100 oC 1412 oC
Bandgap **      Indirect        Indirect        Direct  Direct  Indirect
e-mobility (Cm2V-1S-1)  1400    3900    8500    10000   1396- to -4315
Cost    Cheap   Moderate        Costly  Costly  Moderate
Applications    Nanoscale MOSFETs       Metallurgy, Solid State Electronics     Solar Cells, FOC        Optoelectronics Thermo-Electric Devices
* Its Impact on Nanoscale.   ** Direct- useful for Optoelectronics & Vice Versa.  # Unit of mobility.

Taking Nanoscale MOSFETs into account (for system on chip-SOC, network on chip-NOC, system in package-SIP, and overall Internet of things-IoT devices) it is needed to have a proper study on the unexplored effect of Semiconductor materials. Scaled down MOSFETs are in Nanoscale regime that was predicted by G. E. Moore in Moore’s Law followed by More Moore and More Than Moore (MtM). Design Metrics narrows down to faster response, low power (LP) and cost. For designing IoT devices LP, High Performance (HP) and Low Standby Power (LSTP) are required.

The impact of different attributes of Semiconductor materials on the important short channel effects (SCEs) namely on-off ratio (Ion/Ioff), drain induced barrier lowering (DIBL), variation of threshold voltage (Vth) and trans conductance (gm) are studied. Here a comparative simulation based study is made between conventional and a new proposed advanced MOSFET structure at 22 nm technology.

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