NANOTECHNOLOGY IN OVARIAN CANCER THERAPY
Zeeshan Ahmad (*1), Usama Ahmad (2), Juber Akhtar (2)
(1) Makams Industries Private Limited, Bhiwadi, Alwar, Rajasthan-301019, INDIA
(2) Faculty of Pharmacy, Integral University, Lucknow-226026, INDIA
Abstract: Cancer remains the second foremost cause of death subsequent to cardiovascular disease. Ovarian cancer ranks as the fifth leading cause of death due to cancer in women, yet this disease only accounts for ~5% of all female cancer cases. In 2018, there will be just about 22,240 new cases of ovarian cancer diagnosed and 14,070 ovarian cancer deaths in the US. Nanotechnology is a field that can be defined as the practical application of nanoscience leading to a process or a product that is based upon individual or multiple integrated nanoscale components; nanoscale components having at least one dimension in the size range of 1–100 nm. One of the goals of nanotechnology is to develop the techniques used for diagnosis, therapy or combining both (theranostics) in various diseases including cancers. Particulate drug nanocarriers like liposomes, polymeric micelles, niosomes, polymeric nanoparticles, and solid lipid nanoparticles have exceptional features for interacting with tumor microenvironments and tumor targeting as their submicron size, functional surfaces, stability, possibility to encapsulate hydrophobic drugs, prolong the residence time in systemic circulation. Normally, conventional chemotherapy applications result in rapid blood clearance, degradation, poor drug accumulation in tumor tissues due to poor penetration capacity, undesirable side effects rooting from drug distribution to healthy tissues and multidrug resistance (MDR). Nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems can be helpful for the controlled delivery of chemotherapeutics by means of location and duration without unwanted side effects by overcoming several drug delivery barriers through passive or active targeting strategies.
Key Words: Ovarian cancer, Nanocarriers, Theranostics, Chemotherapeutics