SMART NANOBIOTECHNOLOGY - PROMISING NOVEL BIOMOLECULES OF NANOSTRUCTURED BACTERIAL SURFACE LAYER CRYSTALLINE PROTEINS
Centre for Nano Science and Technology, K.S.Rangasamy College of Technology (Autonomous), Tiruchengode – 637 215.
The bacterial cell surface envelope proteins (S-layer proteins) are self assembling fusion proteins, could pattern 2D planar, 3D structures and 3D cages are based on functional monomeric nanostructures by naturally. As an alternative to engineered and designed fusion proteins that self assemble bacterial surface layer proteins exploit into larger conventions of self assembling crystalline patterns for many applications. S-layer proteins are the outermost component of the cell envelope to protect the cell. They represent a universal feature of archea like Haloferax Volcanii has its surface covered to 98 % with S-layer proteins, gram positive bacteria such as Micrococcus lysodeicticus. S-layer lattices are composed in most cases of a single protein or glycoprotein species, that self assemble into oblique, hexagonal, square, symmetry. S-layer proteins are a first order self assembly system that has been optimised during the course of evolution. In bacteria the S-layer proteins are linked to each other and the underlying cell envelope by non-covalent forces can maintain their self assembly potential even after isolation. The s-layer cyrstal lattices as found on the outside of bacterial cells can be restored on synthetic substrates such as, silicon wafers, noble metal surfaces, langmuir lipid films, liposomes, plastics, ultrafiltration membranes. S-layer matrices for a well defined binding of functional molecules and nanoparticles as biosensors, nano-electronics/optics. These functional S-layer arrays can exploited as supporting structure for functional lipid membranes, planar membranes, liposomes, nanocapsules and drug targeting systems to viral peptides.
Key words: Bacteria, Surface layer proteins, Nanobiotechnology.