Reprinted with permission. Nano Letters, 2004, 4 (1), pp 11–18 || © American Chemical Society || DOI: 10.1021/nl0347334 || Austin M. Derfus, Warren C. W. Chan and Sangeeta N. Bhatia

With their bright, photostable fluorescence, semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) show promise as alternatives to organic dyes for biological labeling. Questions about their potential cytotoxicity, however, remain unanswered. While cytotoxicity of bulk cadmium selenide (CdSe) is well documented, a number of groups have suggested that CdSe QDs are cytocompatible, at least with some immortalized cell lines. Using primary hepatocytes as a liver model, we found that CdSe-core QDs were indeed acutely toxic under certain conditions. Specifically, we found that the cytotoxicity of QDs was modulated by processing parameters during synthesis, exposure to ultraviolet light, and surface coatings. Our data further suggest that cytotoxicity correlates with the liberation of free Cd2+ ions due to deterioration of the CdSe lattice. When appropriately coated, CdSe-core QDs can be rendered nontoxic and used to track cell migration and reorganization in vitro. Our results provide information for design criteria for the use of QDs in vitro and especially in vivo, where deterioration over time may occur.
{The role of ionic controlled release mechanisms in toxicity has of late been touted as a "discovery" in some "science communications" venues, but such a relation has been understood since at least 2003 - evidenced by the above article - and exhibited and recorded by investigations such as those conducted in the primate study at SUNY Buffalo.} -LLP
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