DNA methylation is critical for gene silencing and is associated with the incidence of many diseases,

including cancer. Underlying molecular mechanisms of human diseases and tissue-specific gene

expression have been elucidated based on DNA methylation studies. This review highlights the

advantages and drawbacks of various methylation screening techniques: blotting, genomic sequencing,

bisulfite sequencing, methylation-specific PCR, methylated DNA immunoprecipitation, microarray

analysis, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopy, nanowire transistor

detection procedure, quantum dot-based nanoassay, single-molecule real-time detection,

fluorimetric assay, electrochemical detection, and atomic force spectroscopy. The review provides insight

for selecting a method or a combination of methods for DNA methylation analysis. Convergence of

conventional and contemporary nanotechniques to enumerate methylation at speci

fic CpG sites of oncogene would fill the gap in diagnosis of cancer. (J Mol Diagn 2013, 15: 17e26; http://dx.doi.org/

10.1016/j.jmoldx.2012.06.007DNA methylation)

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