Increasing use of engineered nanomaterials with novel properties relative to their bulk counterparts has generated a need to define their behaviors and impacts in the environment. The high surface area to volume ratio of nanoparticles results in highly reactive and physiochemically dynamic materials in environmental media. Many transformations, e.g. reactions with biomacromolecules, redox reactions, aggregation, and dissolution, may occur in both environmental and biological systems. These transformations and others will alter the fate, transport, and toxicity of nanomaterials. The nature and extent of these transformations must be understood before significant progress can be made toward understanding the environmental risks posed by these materials.