Bactericidal paints. Bactericidal properties of silver nano particles.
Within the last years the nano technology began to be considered not only as one of the most challenging branches of high technology, but also as the backbone factor of economy of the 21st century– the economy based on knowledge, instead of on use of natural resources or their processing. Besides the nanotechnology stimulates development of a new paradigm of all industrial activity it is a source of new approaches to improvement of quality of a life and the solution of many social problems in a postindustrial society. According to the majority of experts in the field of a scientific and technical policy and investment of the means, the broken out nanotechnology revolution will reach all vital fields of activity of the humanity (from an outer space exploration — to medicine, from national defense — to ecology and agriculture), and its effect will be more extensive and deeper, than computer revolution of last third of
the 20th century.
Typical silver nano particles have sizes of 50-200 nanometers. It have big enough specific surface area that increases contact area of silver with bacteria or viruses, essentially
improving its bactericidal actions. Thus, silver application as in a nano size allows to lower in hundreds times concentration of silver with preservation of all bactericidal properties.
It is well-known that silver is the strongest natural antibiotic from existing on the earth. It is proved that silver is capable to destroy more than 650 kinds of bacteria, that is why it was used by people for destruction of various microorganisms through millennia that indicates to its stable antibiotic effect. A wide spectrum of silver antimicrobic actions, absence of tolerance to it of the majority of pathogenic microorganisms, low toxicity, there is no any information of allergenic properties of silver, and patients also have good acceptability. All of these characteristics promotes heightened interest to silver in many countries all over the world.
Why nano silver is better than antibiotics?
After long period of usage the therapeutic value of synthetic antibiotics has decreased because of appearance of microorganisms tolerant to it. Development of resistibility of microorganisms to antibiotics can occur by the reason of direct mutation of a microorganism, and also because of acquisition of DNA parts from other organisms. During millennia bacterias and viruses are not capable to develop "immunity" against silver. While silver is completely safe for mammals (including the human), reptiles, plants and all other organisms which have a multicellular structure.
Silver actions are specific not on an infection (as at antibiotics), but on cellular structure. Any cell without chemically steady wall (such cellular structure have bacterias and other organisms without a cellular wall, for example, cell-free viruses) is subject to silver influence. As cells of
mammals have a membrane of absolutely other type (not containing peptidoglycans), silver does not effect on it in any way.
In general the mechanism of struggle of silver against monocelled (bacteria) and cell-free microorganisms (viruses) represents the following: silver reacts with a cellular membrane of a
bacteria which represents a structure made from special proteins (peptidoglycans), connected by amino acids for providing mechanical durability and stability.
Silver co-operates with external peptidoglycans, blocking their ability of transferring oxygen in a bacteria cell that leads to “asthma” of a microorganism and its destruction.
Where to be applied?
Within the main advantage of nano silver which was modified in a special way to keep biocidal properties, it is rational to use nano silver not as disinfectants of frequent application, but to add it in paints, varnishes and other materials that allows to save money, time and labour expenditures.
Water-based paint and enamels with nano silver have been tested on strong bacterias: the salmonella, Kokh's stick, Staphylococcus, Listeria, Enterococcus etc. As a result of the spent
researches have been proved its high efficiency - at hit on a surface covered with such paint, concentration of bacteria decreases about 0,5-2 times at once, and the full destruction of a colony occurs within 2 hours.
At applying, the paint forms a thin, proof bactericidal cover with a wide spectrum of action. The covering of
surfaces with such paints can be recommended not only to various educational and medical institutions, enterprises of food manufacture, food warehouses, places of a mass congestion of people and in other premises with the high epidemiological danger, but also in house or apartment usage, for example coverings of walls or ceilings in a children's room, on kitchen, in a toilet, a bathroom and so forth…
Paints can be applied to external and internal works, it work in a thin layer, forming a non-polluting, "breathing" covering. Having fine adhesion to beton, a tree, plaster, a brick, to plaster quickly dry up within 2 hours. The paints has no any fire and explosion hazards, to the contrary it become water-, weather-,light-proof. Paints with nano silver are harmless - do not contain toxic components and have no smell that allows to apply it in schools, nurseries, hospitals, kindergartens and other child care centers.
The products containing nano particles of silver are unique, because it suppress growth and enlargement of bacteria which are not only infection activators, but also SOURCES of UNPLEASANT SMELLS.
There are a plenty of zones where a serious epidemiological danger and fast propagation of virus diseases are occurs: the markets, hotels, stations, underground, stadiums and sports clubs,
the trading and exhibition centers, cinemas, zoos, various medical and educational institutions, kindergartens and a day nursery - all places of a mass congestion of people. Here it is necessary to carry military barracks and prison premises, etc.
In the light of latest developments paint and varnish materials will be actual for use by poultry
breeders for preventive processing of walls, ceilings and other designs at poultry packing houses and integrated poultry farms.
Property of sterility is especially actual for damp premises (refrigerating chambers, expeditions of finished goods of bread-baking complexes, storehouses of a flour, grain, groats, pools, baths, cellars etc.).
In medical institutions, in the enterprises of a treatment-and-prophylactic profile to lower microbic pollution, use disinfectant solutions with which process walls. But painting of the same walls by antimicrobic paints at which biocidal action remains not less than year, will allow to save considerably expenditures of labor and financial assets.
Besides, there is no possibility to wash out every day all premises (including CEILINGS) in medical institutions, schools, kindergartens, hairdresser's, baths, houses, apartments,
in public transport and so forth with a solution of chloramines while to paint all these premises or at least its’ any separate fragments (ceilings, window, door, battery, handle and so forth) will be most effective.
Nano particles of silver can be used for modifying of traditional and creations of new materials, the coverings disinfecting and washing-up liquids (including tooth and cleaning pastes, detergent powders, soap), cosmetics. Coverings and materials (composit, textile, paint and varnish, carbon and others), modified with silver nano particles, can be used as preventive antimicrobic protection frames in places where danger of propagation of infections increases: transport, public catering enterprises, in agricultural and cattle-breeding premises, in nurseries,
sports, medical institutions. It is possible to use nano particles of silver for water purification and destruction of pathogenic microorganisms in filters of central airs, in pools, bathrooms and other similar places of mass visiting.
Today the volume of world nano technology market is measured in billions dollars (while this market is made mainly by new materials and the powders improving properties of materials), and by 2015, under forecasts of the western experts, it will exceed $1 bln. In the near future economic, military, social and political position of the developed countries will be defined by a level of development of national nano industry.
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