Liposomes as an effective carrier system for pulmonary delivery
Aisha Shahid*, Mohd. Muazzam Khan, Usama Ahmad**
** Address for corresspondence: Dr. Usama Ahmad, Assistant Professor, Faculty of Pharmacy, Integral University, Lucknow-226026 (India)
Faculty of Pharmacy, Integral University
Cancer is a leading cause of mortality worldwide accounting about 9.6 million deaths in 2018 alone. Among all the cancers, lung cancer has the highest mortality for both men and women in the United States and China. According to the pathogenesis of lung carcinoma can be divided into small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer. Approximately 85% of the global population suffers from non-small cell lung cancer due to its high tumor metastasis level. Many therapies are available to manage lung carcinomas, like radiotherapy, immunotherapy, surgery, phototherapy and chemotherapy. Among all these therapies, surgery has been preferred for the early stage of lung cancer. However, they still have some limitations and poor outcomes with high costs. Among all therapies, chemotherapy has been one of the most used treatments for non-small cell lung cancer. The effect of conventional chemotherapy for lung cancer gives poor results without selectivity to the cancerous cells. However, nanoformulation like liposomes has shown promising results as an effective carrier system. Liposomes are composed of one or more lipid bilayers with spherical shape vesicles and an aqueous core. These can encapsulate both polar and non-polar components or drugs with less toxic effects and also the capability to modify the surface by using various targeting ligands like peptide, carbohydrates, polyethylene glycol, antibody, etc. For successful drug delivery and to increase the therapeutic efficacy, reduce drug metabolism and to enhance bioavailability various inhalation devices like dry powder inhalers (DPI), nebulizers, soft mist inhalers are used to deliver the liposomal loaded drugs directly to the lungs.