• purification of nanomaterials is a pretty popular problem there could be a group for this problem alone. in my experience in research and development I've found very few affective solutions. deionizing resin has many drawbacks as its a difficult material to handle and it often picks up the desired material as well as the unwanted contaminants. flushing by settling and decant (often assisted by centrifuge) will help provided the contaminants aren't within the particle. another method I've found which is rarely mentioned is filtering through an ultra filter with finer particle solutions as it leaves the particle in tact while removing salts. i feel like there's a lot of research to be done using electricity maybe ionic membranes.hope this helps
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