If you don't have X-ray spectroscopy your SEM just isn't complete. In this module I cover X-ray analysis and mass spectometery. For the laboratory activity I just have them run and X-ray analysis on a variety of metal samples. For the lecture portion I describe the operation of the energy dispersive X-ray detector (EDS sometimes called EDX) and the wavelength dispersive X-ray Detectro (WDS). I want them to no about the pile up rejector and how it gives rise to dead time. The trade off between accumulation time, resolution and dead time. I also want them to know why WDS might be preferred over EDS and how thermionic vs. field emission influences the x-ray counts. I can show them how to do an elemental map and identify the different types of atoms/elements in the sample.
For the next part I do a survey of spectroscopy and spectometry. I am probably spending too much time on this but there is such a variety of surface analysis equipment out there that it is hard to included it all. Some that I consider important are Mass Spec, ICP-MS, SIMS, FIB, Atom Probe Microscopy, FTIR, Raman. I also briefly cover XPS. I am saving allowed electron transitions in X-ray generation for a later section. I will also cover XRD later. I want to finish up with the tools for now and move on to Nanomaterials which is a nice change and keeps the students interested.