Graphene-based long-wave infrared TM surface plasmon modulator
We describe theoretically a new long-wave infrared optical modulator based on the characteristics of TM
surface plasmons in graphene. Calculations made using a finite-τ random
Graphene-based long-wave infrared TM surface plasm
phase approximation model, of relevant surface
parameters, are presented. We show that the plasmon losses vary as a
function of carrier density; for large carrier densities, interband
absorption of the plasmon energy is blocked due to filling of the
conduction band states, and for small carrier densities, the plasmon
energy is absorbed
Graphene monolayers have recently been
used as saturable absorbers for modelocking ultrafast fiber lasers [11,
12]. In this work, the saturable absorption also occurs as a result of
the state blocking mechansim. Although a significant modification of
our physical picture through the addition of phonon scattering and
possibly other mechanisms would be required to model this wavelength
range appropriately, it may be possible to extend the modulator discussed here to shorter (telecommunication) wavelengths.
11. Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang,
“Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Functional
Materials 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
12. H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode
locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Optics Express 17, 17630–17635 (2009).