Development and applications of chip calorimeters as novel biosensors
Wonhee Lee1,2, Jinyoung Lee1,2, Joonyoung Koh1,2
1Graduate School of Nanoscience and Technology, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon, Republic of Korea; 2KAIST Institute for the Nanocentury, Daejeon, Republic of Korea
Abstract: Calorimetry is the science of measuring heat. For more than 200 years now, calorimetry has advanced and various types of calorimeters have been developed for diverse applications. The development of microfabrication and microfluidics led to the advent of chip calorimeters, miniaturized calorimeters built and integrated as chips. Chip calorimeters, as label-free biosensors, have many advantages due to their small sample volume and high-throughput capability. In this review, techniques for realizing chip calorimeters are discussed in terms of their major functional components: insulation, fluid handling, and thermometry. Recent trends in the development of chip calorimeters are also discussed, along with several application areas. New fabrication techniques can provide higher sensitivity and easier, more reliable sample handling for chip calorimeters, which would enable new application areas, such as the study of single cell metabolism.
Keywords: chip calorimeter, microfluidic biosensor, thermal sensor