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Functional nanoparticles may help to target and sort bovine cells. In this animation, the cell membrane is encountered by a "Trojan horse" made of a cationic cell penetrating peptide and a gene which both are anchored to a gold nanoparticle carrier that brings the bioconjugate to the site inside the cell nucleus. Both molecules require different media and pH, so it would be difficult to simply mix everything. But subsequent addition of the biomolecules to a continuous gold nanoparticle source (with its origin from laser ablation of a wire) flow in water could provide the bivalent gold nanoparticle bioconjugates.
-----: The projekt is supported by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (research see http://www.uni-due.de/barcikowski/forschen.htm).