In situ tissue engineering with synthetic self-assembling peptide nanofiber scaffolds, PuraMatrix, for mucosal regeneration in the rat middle-ear
Naotaro Akiyama,1 Tomomi Yamamoto-Fukuda,1,2 Haruo Takahashi,1 Takehiko Koji2
1Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, 2Department of Histology and Cell Biology, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki, Japan
Abstract: Middle-ear mucosa maintains middle-ear pressure. However, the majority of surgical cases exhibit inadequate middle-ear mucosal regeneration, and mucosal transplantation is necessary in such cases. The aim of the present study was to assess the feasibility of transplantation of isolated mucosal cells encapsulated within synthetic self-assembling peptide nanofiber scaffolds using PuraMatrix, which has been successfully used as scaffolding in tissue engineering, for the repair of damaged middle ear. Middle-ear bullae with mucosa were removed from Sprague Dawley (SD) transgenic rats, transfected with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) transgene and excised into small pieces, then cultured up to the third passage. After surgical elimination of middle-ear mucosa in SD recipient rats, donor cells were encapsulated within PuraMatrix and transplanted into these immunosuppressed rats. Primary cultured cells were positive for pancytokeratin but not for vimentin, and retained the character of middle-ear epithelial cells. A high proportion of EGFP-expressing cells were found in the recipient middle ear after transplantation with PuraMatrix, but not without PuraMatrix. These cells retained normal morphology and function, as confirmed by histological examination, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy, and multiplied to form new epithelial and subepithelial layers together with basement membrane. The present study demonstrated the feasibility of transplantation of cultured middle-ear mucosal epithelial cells encapsulated within PuraMatrix for regeneration of surgically eliminated mucosa of the middle ear in SD rats.
Keywords: nanofiber, synthetic self-assembling peptide scaffolds, regeneration, middle-ear mucosa, in situ tissue engineering