Production of ultradispersed nano powders with electric explosion method
Matter in form of powders is widely used at home and in industry. Usually we deal with the powders with a size of particles – from tens to hundreds micrometers. Even the powders used in powder metallurgy have the size of particles more than 10 micrometers.
It is known that when decreasing the size of particles, the properties of powders change, but chemical activity increases, coagulation temperature falls, some new properties, not typical for the materials in massive (roughly dispersed) state appear. During the last years such new fields of science as claster chemistry (the size of particles < 5nm), physical chemistry of ultradispersed mediums (the size of structural fragments < 100 nm) and nano material technology have intensely started to develop. The interest to these applications is connected with a search of possibilities to create more powerful chemical sources of energy, new construction materials, equipment and technological processes allowing to provide a principal breakthrough in technology and equipment.
Analysis of literature concerning the properties of the nano powders (UDP) shows that some of their characteristics are connected only with a small size of nano particles, other properties are caused by structure-energy characteristics. Changes in fundamental properties of traditional materials in the ultradispersed state (the decrease of the thaw point temperature, evaporation heat, ionization energy, photoelectric work function of electrons etc.) open large possibilities in the sphere of creation of completely new materials and technologies, devices and equipment.
Achievements of the last 10-15 years in the production of ceramic materials have radically changed the situation with the input powders. Now all the synthetic and chemically purified materials for the production of ceramics are initially the highly dispersed or even ultradispersed nano powders. Attempts made by technologists to get more and more fine powders have lead to the situation when more complicated technologies that were considered too expensive and hence not prospective before, began to replace traditional methods.
The elaboration of the new technologies of production of different nanopowders (UDPs), studies of nano properties and research of effective spheres of nano application nowadays have become one of the most important trends of science and technology development.
1. Nano (UDP) production technology
1.1. Wire electric explosion
1.2. Calculation and selection of explosion parameters
2. Nano particles (UDP) properties
3. The usage of nano powders (UDP)
3.1 Combustion of Aluminum nano powder in nitrogen (aluminum nitride synthesis)
3.2 Production of ultradispersed nano powder of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2).
3.3 Production of hot hydrogen with the aluminum nano powder (UDP)
3.4 Combustion of the aluminum nano powder (UDP) in the mixtures with various oxidants
3.4.1. Reaction of the aluminum nano powder (UDP) with oxides of metals.
3.4.2. Aluminum nano powder (UDP) reaction with percholates and nitrates.
3.5 The prospective of nano powder UDP use for the production of magnetic materials
3.6. Interaction of Aluminum nano powder (UDP) with water
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